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Email: Peter Collier


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Survey Review 54, No 384. May/June 2022

1. Building Information Modelling (BIM) for property valuation: A new approach for Turkish Condominium Ownership
Nida Celik Simsek & Bayram Uzun

In Turkey, calculation of the factors affecting the value of the condominium units of a building via 2D architectural project data leads to problems. One of the biggest problem is the land share calculation. The aim of this study was to establish a mechanism by which the properties of the factors affecting the value can be determined mathematically and to arrive at a value-based land share. For this purpose, the study utilized a 3D virtual Building Information Modelling (BIM) model. The value factors and weights were determined via a questionnaire, 3D BIM model of the structure was created, metric values of the factors were calculated and the nominal values of the condominium units were calculated. This study demonstrate that a building nonexistent in the real world can be represented in a virtual environment and comparable information source can be presented to the expert who will carry out the valuation process.

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2. Total least squares adjustment in inequality constrained partial errors-in-variables models: optimality conditions and algorithms
Jian Xie, Dongfang Lin & Sichun Long

The partial errors-in-variables (PEIV) model is a structured form of errors-in-variables (EIV) model reformulated by collecting all the independent random elements of the coefficient matrix. When some reliable inequality constraints are taken into account, the adjustment results of inequality constrained PEIV (ICPEIV) model are probably improved. In this contribution, we first present the optimality conditions for inequality constrained weighted total least squares (ICWTLS) solution in ICPEIV model. Then we modified the existing linear approximation (LA) approach to make it suitable for cross-correlated data. The sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method is proposed based on the optimality conditions. Since the Hessian matrix is difficult to compute in the SQP algorithm and it converges slowly or even not converges when the Hessian matrix is indefinite positive, the damped quasi-Newton (DQN) SQP method is proposed. Finally, three examples are given to show the feasibility and performance of the proposed algorithms.

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3. A new algorithm for rank-deficient problems with inequality constraints
Zhao Shaojie, Song Yingchun & Li Wenna

In geodesy, in addition to observation information, there are also parameters additional useful information. Making full use of them can make up for the lack of observation information and form effective constraints on unknown parameters. In order to make the adjustment results unique and stable, we build a function model to solve inequality constraints, and based on the linear complementarity theory, propose to use the potential function descent interior point algorithm to solve the rank deficient problem. After that, we also extend this idea to the study of the ill-posed problem in this paper. Finally, examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that this algorithm satisfies the uniqueness and stability of the solution, and provides a new reference for the research of rank-deficient and ill-posed problems in the future.

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4. Comparison between Gaussian and decorrelation filters of GRACE-based RL05 temporal gravity solutions over Egypt
Basem Elsaka & Mohamed El-Ashquer

This contribution provides a comparison between the Gaussian and decorrelation filters as derived from GRACE products (RL05) estimated by the official GRACE Science Data System centres (GFZ, CSR and JPL) as well as the ITSG-GRACE2016 solutions over Egypt. The outcome of this study will help in finding out which of these centres provides improved temporal gravity solutions as well as the most promising GRACE time series over Egypt. The obtained results regarding Gaussian filters show that the GFZ centre provides the most promising solutions w.r.t. CSR and JPL. Whereas the ITSG-GRACE2016 products provide improvements, especially at Gaussian radius 200 km, of about 56%, 68% and 60% w.r.t. CSR, JPL and GFZ solutions, respectively. Regarding the decorrelation filtering, the ITSG-GRACE2016 provides the least Std. w.r.t. CSR, JPL and GFZ solutions showing for the DDK8 improvement of about 48%, 64% and 68% w.r.t. the three centres GFZ, JPL and CSR, respectively.

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5. Evaluation of global gravity field models using shipborne free-air gravity anomalies over the Gulf of Guinea, Central Africa
Kamto Paul Gautier, Yap Loudi, Zanga Amougou Alain, Kandé Houetchak Ludovic, Nguiya Sévérin & Kamguia Joseph

In this work, the principal aim is to evaluate some recent GGMs on the Gulf of Guinea region using shipborne free-air gravity data. Two types of GGMs are evaluated in this study: combined models (EGM2008, EIGEN-6C4, GECO, SGG-UGM-1, GOCO05C and XGM2016) and satellite-only models (DIR_R5, ITU_GGC16, SPW_R5, TIM_R5, GGM05G and NULP_02S). The comparisons between these GGMs and the preliminary filtered shipborne gravity data were performed before and after the Spectral Enhancement Method (SEM). The statistical results have shown that the combined models have a better performance than the satellite-only models. Before and after SEM, we note that the EGM2008 model presents the best statistical results compared to the shipborne gravity anomalies (RMS and SD values respectively changes from 3.87 to 3.55 mGal and from 3.57 to 3.32 mGal). However, the DIR_R5 model is the best of the satellite-only GGMs of this study.

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6. Assessing the positioning performance of GNSS receivers under different geomagnetic storm conditions
Chao Yan, Qing Wang, Bo Zhang, Jiujing Xu & Hao Zhang

GNSS signals are affected when solar activity causes sudden variations in the density of the ionosphere. Few studies concentrate on positioning performance of IGS stations using different GNSS receivers under different geomagnetic storm conditions. This paper for the first time presents IF and UC PPP positioning performance of stations with different receivers during the quiet, moderate, intense, and super storms period. Firstly, a comprehensive investigation of geomagnetic storms effects on the occurrence of GPS cycle-slip and PPP positioning performance have been presented. Secondly, the influences of geomagnetic storms on the occurrence of cycle-slip and IF PPP positioning performance for stations using receivers provided by ‘JAVAD’, ‘LEICA’, and ‘TRIMBLE’ manufacturers have been comprehensively studied. Finally, this study investigates the geomagnetic storms effects on IF PPP positioning performance of stations using receiver types ‘JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA’, ‘JAVAD TRE_3 DELTA’, ‘LEICA GR25’, and ‘TRIMBLE NETR9’ by analysing observed data collected at mid-latitude region.

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7. Determination of local gravimetric geoid model over Egypt using LSC and FFT estimation techniques based on different satellite- and ground-based datasets
Ahmed Saadon, Mohamed El-Ashquer, Basem Elsaka & Gamal El-Fiky

In this contribution, two gravimetric geoid models for Egypt; EGY-LGM2019 and EGY-FGM2019 are developed using the least-squares collocation and the Fast-Fourier Transformation methods, applying Remove-Restore procedure. Different datasets are used in terms of gravity anomalies obtained from GOCE-based SPW-R5 and EGM2008 models, and from 1015 terrestrial gravity stations. Two gravimetric geoid models, EGY-FLGM2019 derived by the LSC method and EGY-FFGM2019 derived by 1D-FFT method are computed and fitted using the 17 GPS/levelling measurements to adjust the gravimetric geoid model with the national local vertical datum for Egypt. Our findings between the 6 GPS/levelling geoid undulations and the developed fitted geoid models EGY-FFGM2019 and EGY-FLGM2019 are about 7.57 and 18.46 cm, respectively. In addition, the former model improves the geoid heights of about 72-65% over Egypt w.r.t. the EGM2008 and GECO models, respectively. Therefore, the EGY-FFGM2019 model is recommended as a reliable model that improves the geoid heights over Egypt.

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8. Estimation for the accumulated errors in determining the road grade to improve the accuracy of a geodetic survey
Kostiantyn Mamonov, Yevhen Orel, Svetlana Kamchatnaya, Oleksandr Saiapin & Dmytro Borodin

During designing a railway track, the accumulated errors in the transmission of coordinates affect the construction cost, change the conditions for designing tracks and the value of operating costs. If the grade of the track comes closer to the limiting grade, more accuracy is required to draw up the survey plan and terrain profile, and the more often geodetic control points are necessary. It is indicated that the calculation for the entire track is wrong based on errors in length due to errors in marks. The article provides a mathematical rationale for computation the error of the route survey grade as a function of the section length of the lines that have a steep slope. The influence of errors in determining the elevation and length on the line grade is considered. It is shown that the steeper the limiting grade the shorter should be the traverse of geodetic control.

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Survey Review 54, No 383. March/April 2022

1. Collaborative positioning method via GPS/INS and RS/MO multi-source data fusion in multi-target navigation
Rui Liu, Klaus Greve, Pengyu Cui & Nan Jiang

This paper aims to design a method of multi-source data fusion in multi-target collaborative navigation. First, the respective features of GPS/INS/RS/MO data in the navigation process are clarified. Then a multi-source data fusion method is designed including GPS/INS data fusion with adaptive Kalman filter, RS/MO data fusion with ranging table matching of observation targets, and joint adjustment with fused GPS/INS and RS/MO data. Finally, a simulation experiment is carried out to verify the improvement in positioning efficiency and precision. The results show that collaborative navigation based on multi-source data fusion can increase the stability and accuracy of the navigation service.

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2. Estimation of the height datum geopotential value of Hong Kong using the combined Global Geopotential Models and GNSS/levelling data
Panpan Zhang, Lifeng Bao, Dongmei Guo & Qianqian Li

The advent of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Exploration (GOCE) has changed the global contribution in the determination of high-accuracy global geopotential models (GGMs). In this paper, a spectral expansion method is used to determine the combined GGMs, using the high-resolution EGM2008 model and residual terrain model (RTM) to effectively bridge the spectral gap between the satellite and terrestrial data. The accuracy of the combined GGMs shows improvement compared with GOCE/GRACE-based GGMs and EGM2008 in determining the geopotential of the Hong Kong Principal Datum (HKPD). As a result of the DIR_R5/EGM2008/RTM model and GNSS/levelling, the geopotential value of HKPD is estimated to be 62,636,860.52 m2s−2 with respect to the global geoid W0 = 62,636,853.4 m2s−2. Therefore, the vertical offset between the HKPD and global geoid is about −72.8 cm, which means that the HKPD is 72.8 cm below the global height datum.

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3. A search step optimization in an ambiguity function-based GNSS precise positioning
Slawomir Cellmer, Krzysztof Nowel & Artur Fischer

The search procedure, as a part of the Modified Ambiguity Function Approach (MAFA), is conducted in the coordinate space. The main advantage of searching for a fixed solution in the coordinate domain, instead of in the ambiguity domain, is the constant search space dimension, which amounts to three. In contrast, an ambiguity space dimension can presently achieve over twenty when the positioning is based on multi-system data. Thus, in the MAFA method, the computational complexity is independent of the number of satellites. We propose a new method of estimating the length of the search step. In this method, the actual satellite configuration determines the size of the search step. Therefore, the data-driven search step is always optimal, regardless of the current satellite configuration. The mathematical model of the new approach is provided together with a detailed algorithm. The numerical experiment follows the description of the search procedure.

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4. History of geodetic works in Vojvodina (Northern Serbia) and use of old maps in Serbian national spatial data infrastructure
Sofija Naod, Oleg Odalović, Ljiljana Brajović & Rajko Savanović

Imperial hegemony established by the Habsburg Monarchy relied upon proper mapping during its conquests. The need for the development of geodesy and establishing reference frames was important. Until the end of the First World War, Vojvodina belonged to the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, so all of its surveys were carried out as part of many organized land surveys in the Monarchy. Today, more than 100 years after Vojvodina became the Autonomous Province of Serbia, the network developed by the Monarchy and cadastral plans from that period are still in use. In this paper, in addition to a historical overview of military and cadastral surveys in Vojvodina, we will show data that have historical significance and are available on the Internet and in historical archives. We will also emphasize how the maps available in historical archives of the neighbouring countries could have been used to set up Serbian national spatial data infrastructure.

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5. Consideration on how to introduce gamification tools to enhance citizen engagement in crowdsourced cadastral surveys
Konstantinos Apostolopoulos & Chryssy Potsiou

The major objective of this research is to investigate the progress of citizen participation in cadastral surveying and to consider ways on how to introduce gamification tools for further improvement. A brief literature review is presented in the areas of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 related to land administration and citizen engagement, e-government and citizen participation and gamification tools for citizen engagement. This paper, also, includes an investigation of the progress in introducing volunteerism and citizen participation to the Hellenic Cadastre. A case study is held by a group of volunteers in order to assess the developed tools designed either by the private sector or by the cadastral agency.

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6. Lake water level variability determination from SAR backscatter of discrete objects, GNSS levelling and satellite altimetry
R. Reyes, M. Nagai & A. Blanco

In the absence of enough gauging stations for monitoring lake water level, three (3) methods are presented in this research: (1) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) backscatter from discrete object; (2) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) levelling; and (3) satellite altimetry. The results showed that the Laguna Lake water level is not homogeneous but instead varies at different locations. The GNSS leveling showed that water level varies from −0.64 to 1.26 m from water gauge data. Using the fish pen guard house as discrete object for double bounce scattering a correlation of 0.86 was computed between the gauge data and sigma 0 the equation derived through linear regression was used to predict water level from SAR images at different periods. The satellite altimeter data correlated with water level from graduated staff at 0.97 with a difference of about 0.29 m. It also showed an increasing water level trend from north to south.

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7. Comparing results of online GNSS services: A case study from Turkey
Özge Güneş & Deniz Öz Demir

The goal of this paper is to compare academic and online GNSS processing services for CORS-TR. To determine whether differences in the coordinate components were statistically significant, statistical significance test and 3D coordinate transformation were applied. Furthermore, local coordinates analysed to show jumps that occurred to seismic events. While there are significant differences only in the Z coordinate component between GIPSY and GAPS in the Cartesian coordinate system, all differences in local coordinate components are insignificant. 3D coordinate transformation results included random errors and there are insignificant differences in terms of transformation parameters between GIPSY and online GNSS processing services.

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8. Health monitoring and safety evaluation of bridge dynamic load with a ground-based real aperture radar
Sichun Long, Wenting Liu, Jinyu Ma, Aixia Tong, Wenhao Wu & Chuanguang Zhu

Through a series of experiments of dynamic deformation and destruction under time series loading on an indoor real model bridge, Ground-based real-aperture radar interferometry (GB-InRAR) discovered that before the structure of the bridge was damaged, its amplitude and acceleration increased with the increase of load; After its structure was damaged or cracked, such dynamic characteristics as natural frequency, damping ratio, stiffness and bearing capacity decreased obviously. Moreover, GB-InRAR dynamic load monitoring of Xiangtan Railway Bridge and Inter-city Railway Bridge. In the process of vehicle dynamic load, such important parameters as bridge deflection, natural frequency and damping ratio conform to the bridge loading procedures and dynamic characteristics. The results show that the GB-InRAR can accurately measure the deflection changes, natural vibration frequency and spectrum characteristics of bridges, and it can be used as effective means of the dynamic characteristics analysis in the safety detection and health evaluation of bridges.

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Survey Review 54, No 382. January/February 2022

1. Architecture for semantic web service composition in spatial data infrastructures
Deniztan Ulutaş Karakol & Çetin Cömert

The importance of geospatial data has rendered it to be used in decision-making in both public and private sectors. The purpose of this study was to employ Semantic Web Technology (SWT) for the problems of Web Service Composition (WSC) in the context of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). Some of these problems are identifying the workflow sequence and the user goal, discovering services according to service parameters, and matching these parameters. As a suggestion for the solution of all these problems a semi-automated WSC architecture was proposed in this study. In terms of architecture, users state their ‘goal’ with a natural language sentence. By semantically matching this sentence with a Spatial Services Ontology (SSO), the corresponding ‘abstract’ WSC was ‘located’ and the ‘concrete’ WSC was formed. Although there are still problems waiting to be solved due to the scope of the work, this study makes a valuable contribution to the area.

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2. A comprehensive assessment of four-satellite QZSS constellation: navigation signals, broadcast ephemeris, availability, SPP, interoperability with GPS, and ISB against GPS
XuanPing Li, Lin Pan, Wenkun Yu, Wujiao Dai, Yanjie Li & Hui Peng

In this study, a comprehensive assessment of four-satellite Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) constellation is conducted, including the quality of navigation signals, the accuracy of broadcast ephemeris, the availability of satellite constellation, the performance of single point positioning (SPP), the interoperability with GPS, and the inter-system bias (ISB) against GPS. Regarding the signal quality, no significant difference between QZSS and GPS can be found. The signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE) of QZSS satellites is 0.59–0.62 m. The service rate of QZSS-only positioning is 69.8–77.8% in QZSS service areas. A positioning accuracy of 5.70, 3.20 and 6.99 m in east, north and up directions can be achieved for the QZSS-only SPP. After introducing QZSS observations into GPS-only SPP processing, the positioning accuracy can be slightly improved. The ISB with a short-term stability of 1.75 ns behaves like systematic biases, and thus cannot be ignored in the GPS/QZSS combined SPP.

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3. Assessment of the GNSS PPP performance using ultra-rapid and rapid products from different analysis centres
Sermet Ogutcu & Haitham Talib Farhan

The performance of precise point positioning (PPP) mainly depends on satellite orbit and clock accuracy. Ultra-rapid and rapid orbit/clock products have been creating by analysis centres (ACs) for time-critical applications. In this paper, GPS-, GLONASS-, Galileo-, and BeiDou (BDS-2)-only PPP with ultra-rapid and rapid products from seven ACs (i.e. CODE, ESA, IGS, GFZ, JPL, NRCan, and WUHAN) are investigated for PPP performance. A two-month period in 2020 was chosen for conducting static and kinematic PPP using data from 32 Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations. For GPS-only PPP with different ACs, GFZ/NRCan and CODE/NRCan rank first for ultra-rapid and rapid PPP processes, respectively. For GLONASS-only PPP, positioning performances using ultra-rapid products are comparable with each other except for CODE and ESA products. CODE rapid product ranks last for GLONASS-only PPP. For Galileo and BeiDou-only PPP, GFZ AC performs the best for ultra-rapid processes. For Galileo-only PPP using rapid products, CODE ranks first.

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4. Accuracy assessment of kinematic PPP versus PPK for GNSS flights data processing
Mert Gurturk & Metin Soycan

The integration of survey-grade Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with photogrammetric measurement studies conducted with an aircraft has the potential to meet the need for the use of ground control points (GCP). In photogrammetric studies, there are different GNSS techniques to provide the precise positioning of the aircraft. The precise point positioning (PPP) technique has become an alternative method to post-processing kinematic (PPK) methods in the evaluation of GNSS data gathered with an aircraft at high speed. In this study, GNSS data gathered from two different flights conducted for photogrammetric surveys in Izmir, Turkey were processed with different software (RTKLIB, gLAB, CSRS-PPP, and GRAFNAV) through PPP technique with the ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) method to analyse the performance of this method versus PPK. Three-dimensional (3D) positioning analyses of coordinate differences obtained from mapping flights demonstrated a variation pattern mainly between 0 and 6 cm for both kinematic PPP and PPK results.

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5. Empirical comparison between stochastic and deterministic modifiers over the French Auvergne geoid computation test-bed
R. Goyal, J. Ågren, W.E. Featherstone, L.E. Sjöberg, O. Dikshit & N. Balasubramanian

Since 2006, several different groups have computed geoid and/or quasigeoid (quasi/geoid) models for the Auvergne test area in central France using various approaches. In this contribution, we compute and compare quasigeoid models for Auvergne using Curtin University of Technology’s and the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology’s approaches. These approaches differ in many ways, such as their treatment of the input data, choice of type of spherical harmonic model (combined or satellite-only), form and sequence of correction terms applied, and different modified Stokes’s kernels (deterministic or stochastic). We have also compared our results with most of the previously reported studies over Auvergne in order to seek any improvements with respect to time [exceptions are when different subsets of data have been used]. All studies considered here compare the computed quasigeoid models with the same 75 GPS-levelling heights over Auvergne. The standard deviation for almost all of the computations (without any fitting) is of the order of 30–40 mm, so there is not yet any clear indication whether any approach is necessarily better than any other nor improving over time. We also recommend more standardisation on the presentation of quasi/geoid comparisons with GPS-levelling data so that results from different approaches over the same areas can be compared more objectively.

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6. An attempt to analyse Iterative Data Snooping and L1-norm based on Monte Carlo simulation in the context of leveling networks
Ivandro Klein, Stefano Sampaio Suraci, Leonardo Castro de Oliveira, Vinicius Francisco Rofatto, Marcelo Tomio Matsuoka & Sergio Baselga

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the outlier identification performance of iterative Data Snooping (IDS) and L1-norm in levelling networks by considering the redundancy of the network, number and size of the outliers. For this purpose, several Monte-Carlo experiments were conducted into three different levelling networks configurations. In addition, a new way to compare the results of IDS based on Least Squares (LS) residuals and robust estimators such as the L1-norm has also been developed and presented. From the perspective of analysis only according to the success rate, it is shown that L1-norm performs better than IDS for the case of networks with low redundancy (r¯<0.5), especially for cases where more than one outlier is present in the dataset. In the relationship between false positive rate and outlier identification success rate, however, IDS performs better than L1-norm, independently of the levelling network configuration, number and size of outliers.

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7. Spatial aspect of fit-for-purpose land administration for emerging land administration systems: a conceptual framework for evaluation approach
Didier Milindi Rugema, Tadesse Amsalu Birhanu & Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

Fit-for-purpose land administration (FFPLA) concept is widely applied in the emerging land administration systems (LASs). This paper aims to contribute to the development of evaluation of the spatial aspect of FFPLA. A review of evaluation models for LASs is made in relation with rationale of FFPLA to identify gaps related to evaluation of a FFPLA and to build up milestones and measurement criteria. The incorporation of possible manual land recordation and computer enabled LASs for evaluation approach is accentuated as milestones of a country’s strategy approach, and perspective of FFPLA as a process.

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8. Obituary: James (Jim) R. Smith 1 October 1935–12 August 2021
Arthur L. Allan & Peter Collier

Jim Smith, the former editor of Survey Review, started work as a surveyor with the National Coal Board Opencast Executive in 1958 before moving to Hertfordshire County Council’s Architects Department in 1960. It was while there that Jim qualified as a surveyor in 1961 and became an ARICS. He had studied surveying in the South-West Essex Technical College, now part of the University of East London. While studying, Jim was a founding member and first chairman of the Land Surveyors Society in the college. Being an active member of societies was to be a theme running throughout Jim’s subsequent career and extended into retirement.

In 1962 Jim moved to Nigeria to join the Department of Lands and Housing in the West Nigeria Government, working as a Provincial Surveyor and survey instructor. While in Nigeria he served the West Nigeria branch of the RICS. In 1964 Jim returned to Britain and joined the Survey Production Centre (Royal Engineers) where he worked as an Experimental Officer until 1968. In 1966 Jim served on the RICS Working Party “Metric System and the Ordnance Survey” and the Middlesex and Urban Essex branch committee of the RICS. In 1967 he became a member of the Land Survey Divisional Committee, a position he kept until 1996, serving as Honorary Secretary from 1968 to 1980. Jim also served as editor for the Land Survey Notes monthly page in The Chartered Surveyor from 1967 to 1979. From 1968 to 1980 he was technical organiser of Biennial Land Survey Conferences and from 1968 to 1981 chairman of the sub-committee for FIG exhibitions.

In 1968 Jim made his final career move when he joined Portsmouth Polytechnic’s Department of Civil Engineering. During much of Jim’s time in Portsmouth, he was one of four surveyors in the Department of Civil Engineering, making it one of the best survey resourced departments in Britain. Following his move to Portsmouth Jim became involved in examining for the RICS and an assessor for ONC while continuing to be involved in many other RICS activities. He also became more heavily involved with FIG. This included serving as a member of the FIG/CIB Working Party on tolerances in building (1975–96); as secretary of Commission 6 (1979–88); Commission 1 Group for the 250th anniversary of survey expeditions (1984–86); and was Secretary of FIG International Institution for the History of Surveying. His interest in the history of surveying led him to become a member of the Royal Society Committee for the 125th anniversary conference of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and his work on Sir George Everest and as secretary of the group running the Struve Arc Project.

The interest in the history of surveying also led to the writing of a number of books on the subject including From Plane to Spheroid, R.S. Webb (1892–1976) From Shropshire to Paarl via Geodesy and Lesotho: Everest and The Man and the Mountain. He also worked with Jan de Graeve on the translation of the Struve volumes. His interest in the work of Struve also resulted in a number of conference presentations and published papers. With Alan Wright and Brian Sturman he wrote The Tellurometer from Wadley to the MRA7. He also took on the task of editing the papers of R.S. Webb’s held in the South African Trig. Survey Library, a project that took from 1982 until 2018.

Jim also published numerous technical books including Optical Distance Measurement, which became a standard for survey students, and Desk Calculators in the series Modern Aspects of Land Surveying which Jim had initiated. He then acted as series editor of other books in the series. Four books were written in the 1970s for Hewlett-Packard on the use and programming of their calculators. Basic Geodesy followed in 1988, followed by Introduction to Geodesy in 1997. Jim also wrote some 132 papers on various survey topics, some of which appeared in Survey Review.

Jim served as editor of Survey Review from 2000 to the end of 2011 and continued to serve on the editorial board in an advisory capacity for a few more years. Jim’s tenure coincided with a number of important changes in the journal during which it went from being published by CASLE to being an independent journal and then being published by Maney for Survey Review Limited. Jim’s work during that time was invaluable in making sure that Survey Review continued to be published in a timely fashion while coping with an increasing number of submissions to the journal, and doing this while still working in a pre-electronic submission environment.

Jim was blessed with a pleasant personality and kind disposition towards others, which served him well in his relationships both in committee work and personal friendships. He was also favoured by a wife Ann who supported his work, augmented his hospitality and often accompanied him on his foreign travels. It is no happy accident that he made such a success of his life. He is survived by two daughters, Nicola Jones and Bridget Johns; two grandchildren Eleanor McCullagh (Johns) and Peter Johns; and his new baby great-granddaughter Annie McCullagh.

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